Thebes was another city in Greece that prominently figured in both Greek mythology and historical accounts. Together with Sparta, Athens, Argos and Corinth, it was a military stronghold whose forces prevented the expansion of Persia in Greece.

In mythology, Thebes was founded by Cadmus, who named its acropolis (citadel) Cadmeia after him, and its inhabitants were called Cadmeans. Another tale tells of the twin gods Amphion and Zethus who founded the seven gated walls of Cadmeia.

The most tragic mythological tales were set in Thebes, such as the story of Oedipus, prince of Thebes who was raised in Corinth, returned to Thebes, and fulfilled a prophecy of killing his father and marrying his mother.
As a fortified domain located in the central Grecian region of Boeotia, Thebes was prone to challenges by attackers, specifically the Dorian invaders.

As with other ancient Greek cities, there was no concrete historical records for the founding of Thebes, except for literary accounts and archaeological findings that suggest aristocratic land ownership governed the city in its earliest days.


In the rich history of ancient Greece, They left a mark as a defector of Greco interest when, during the Persian invasion of Greece that started in 480 BC, it allied with the Persian King Xerxes I and culminated in fighting against Greek forces in the Battle of Platea in 479 BC, which the Greeks won. This attitude stemmed from Thebes’ hatred for Athens, which earlier prevented smaller villages to be annexed to Thebes. After this, it was deprived of leadership of the Boeotian League as previously agreed.

Subsequently, Thebes, with its elite army force called The Sacred Band of Thebes, was defeated by Alexander The Great in 338 BC. Today, it remains as the largest town in the Boeotia Prefecture and has evolved into a bustling market town.